|The Data Sharing Service service terminated with the following error: %%3239247874|
Searching online for more information about this service and why it might be failing, I came across a lot of people describing similar problems, but the only explanation and solution I found came from this December blog post by Microsoft Japan. Google translate did a great job making the post understandable to me, but since the information doesn't seem to have been widely publicized I thought I'd share it here to help get the word out.
The Data Sharing Service fails due to a resource conflict with another service included in Server 2016, the User Access Logging Service. Either one of these services alone will run without issue, but if one is already running and you try to start the other, it will fail.
According to an update to the blog post, Microsoft plans to resolve the issue in a future update to Server 2016, but in the mean time there is a simple workaround that will allow the Data Sharing Service and User Access Logging Service to live in harmony. The internal resource conflict occurs because the two services are running in a shared process. By configuring the services to each run in their own process, the conflict is avoided and both services can be running at the same time. Run these two commands to change the configuration:
Sc config ualsvc type=own
Sc config dssvc type=own
After changing the service configuration, you should now be able to start the Data Sharing Service successfully.